KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Grading Rationale Statements


Level of Evidence


Analysis of individual patient data from a single large, generalizable study of high methological quality (for example NHANES III)


Compilation of original articles (evidence tables)


Review of reviews and selected original articles




AASK African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension
ABPM Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
ACE-inhibitor Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
ADA American Diabetes Association
AFT Autonomic function testing
Alb Albumin
ASCVD Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
ASN American Society of Nephrology
AST American Society of Transplantation
ASTP American Society of Transplant Physicians
AV Arterio-venous
BAP Bone alkaline phosphatase
BDI Beck Depression Inventory
BEE Basal energy expenditure
BMI Body mass index
BP Blood pressure
BPI Blood pressure index
BSA Body surface area
BUN Blood urea nitrogen
CAD Coronary artery disease
CCD Clinical cardiovascular disease
CCr Creatinine clearance
CDI Cognitive Depression Index
CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression
CG equation Cockcroft-Gault equation
CHD Coronary heart disease
CHF Congestive heart failure
Cin Inulin clearance
CKD Chronic kidney disease
COOP Dartmouth COOP Clinical Improvement System
COX 2 Cyclo-oxygenase type 2
CPG Clinical practice guideline
CPM Clinical performance measure
CQI Continuous quality improvement programs
Cr Creatinine
CRF Chronic renal failure
CT Computed tomography
CTSCr Clearance of creatinine due to tubular secretion
CUrea Urea clearance
CVD Cardiovascular disease
D Day(s)
DBP Diastolic blood pressure
DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial
DEI Dietary energy intake
DEXA Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (bone densitometry)
DM Diabetes mellitus
DM I Type 1 diabetes mellitus
DM II Type 2 diabetes mellitus
DMMS Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study
DMSA Dimercaptosuccinic acid
DOQI Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative
DPI Dietary protein intake
DTPA Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid
DUKE Duke Health Profile
DUSOI Duke Severity of Illness
ECr Extra-renal creatinine elimination rate
EDTA Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid
EDX Electrodiagnosis
EEG Electroencephalogram
EMG Electromyography
ESRD End-stage renal disease
Exp Exponent
FSGS Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
GCr Creatinine generation rate
GFR Glomerular filtration rate
GN Glomerulonephritis
HBP High blood pressure
HCFA Health Care Financing Administration
(currently Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
Services, CMS)
HD Hemodialysis
HDFP Hypertension Detection and Follow-Up Program
HDL High density lipoprotein
Hgb Hemoglobin
HI Health Index
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HLA Human leukocyte antigen
HOPE Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation
HOT Hypertension Optimal Trial
Hr Hour(s)
HR Heart rate
HTN Hypertension
ICD-9 International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision
ICTP Type I collagen cross linked telopeptides
IDDM Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
IDNT Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial
IEQ Illness Effects Questionnaire
IHD Ischemic heart disease
IN Interstitial nephritis
IOM Institute of Medicine
IPTH Intact parathyroid hormone
IRMA Intraretinal microvascular abnormalities
IVP Intravenous pyelography
JNC-VI Sixth report of the Joint National Committee
for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and
Treatment of High Blood Pressure
KDOQI Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative
KDQOL Kidney Disease Quality of Life
KPS Karnofsky Performance Scale
Krt/Vurea Renal urea clearance divided by volume of distribution
Kt/Vurea Urea clearance divided by volume of distribution
LDL Low density lipoprotein
LMW Low molecular weight
LV Left ventricle
LVH Left ventricular hypertrophy
MAG3 Mercaptoacetyltriglycine
MAP Mean arterial pressure
Max Maximum
MCD Medullary cystic disease
MCS SF-36 Mental Component Summary
MDRD Study Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study
MI Myocardial infarction
Min Minute(s)
Min Minimum
MNT Medical nutrition therapy
Mo Month(s)
MR Magnetic resonance
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging
MSP Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support
N Number of subjects in subgroup
N Number of subjects in sample or population
NA Not applicable
NAE Normal urinary albumin excretion
NAG N-acetyl-<beta>-D-glucosaminidase
NCEP National Cholesterol Education Program
NCHS National Center for Health Statistics
NCV Nerve conduction velocity
ND No data
NHANES III Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NIDDM Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
NIH National Institutes of Health
NK Natural killer
NKF National Kidney Foundation
No. Number
NPNA Normalized protein nitrogen appearance
NS Non-significant
NSAID Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
PARADE Proteinuria, Albuminuria, Risk Assessment, Detection, and Elimination
PCr Plasma or serum creatinine concentration
PCS SF-36 Physical Component Summary
PD Peritoneal dialysis
PEM Protein-energy malnutrition
PICP Procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptides
Pin Plasma inulin
PKD Polycystic kidney disease
PN Pyelonephritis
PNA Protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance
PTH Parathyroid hormone
PVD Peripheral vascular disease
QST Quantitative sensory testing
QWB Quality of Well-being Scale
RBC Red blood cell
RBP Retinol binding protein
RDA Recommended dietary allowance
RENAAL Reduction of Endpoints in Non-Insulin
Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the
Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan
RHIE Rand Health Insurance Experiment
RPA Renal Physicians Association
RR Relative risk
SAS-SR Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report
SBP Systolic blood pressure
SBW Standard body weight
SCL 90R Symptom Checklist-90R
SCr Serum creatinine concentration
SD Standard deviation
SDS-PAGE Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
SE Standard error
SF-36 RAND Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey
SGA Subjective global assessment
SIP Sickness Impact Profile
SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus
SLS Satisfaction with Life Scale
SMBG Self-monitoring of blood glucose
Sn Sensitivity
Sp Specificity
STAI State Trait Anxiety Inventory
SUN Serum urea nitrogen
TOD Target organ damage
TSCr Tubular creatinine secretion rate
UAC Urine albumin concentration
UAlb/Cr Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio
UCr Urine creatinine concentration
Uin Urine inulin concentration
UKPDS United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study
UNA Urea nitrogen appearance
US United States
USRDS United States Renal Data System
UUN Urine urea nitrogen
V Urine flow rate
VUrea Volume of distribution of urea
WBC White blood cell
WHO World Health Organization
Wk Week(s)
Yr Year(s)
-2-MG -2-Microglobulin
Δ Difference/change