THE MAJOR OUTCOMES of chronic kidney disease are loss of kidney function, leading to complications and kidney failure, and development of cardiovascular disease. The goals of Part 7 are to define risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease and to determine whether chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Because of the well-known association of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, the Work Group considered patients with chronic kidney disease due to diabetes separately from patients with chronic kidney disease due to other causes. As described in Appendix 1, Table 153, the Work Group searched primarily for longitudinal studies that related risk factors to loss of kidney function (Guideline 13) and that related proteinuria and decreased GFR to cardiovascular disease (Guidelines 14 and 15). It was beyond the scope of the Work Group to undertake a systematic review of studies of treatment. However, existing guidelines and recommendations were reviewed, as were selected studies, to provide further evidence of efficacy of treatment.